Though Cairn Terriers do possess the usual Terrier traits, such as being courageous, tough, alert, and sometimes a tad stubborn, they are a totally unique breed and were officially recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1913.
Most people recall little Toto from The Wizard of Oz but may not know that he was played by a female Cairn Terrier named Terry. Another Cairn Terrier, Danny, starred in the classic TV series Dennis the Menace as Mr. Wilson’s feisty Fremont and in I Love Lucy as Fred the dog.
If you’re curious about the size of today’s Cairn Terriers, you’ve come to the right place. Let’s dive in.
How big do Cairn Terriers get? Breed standards dictate that Cairn Terriers should be 13 – 14 pounds, reach a height of 9 ½ – 10 inches and measure 15 inches from the chest to rump. Full height is usually reached by 10 – 12 months but filling out may continue for several more months.
While the physical characteristics of this breed have been standardized for many years now, various factors can cause a Cairn Terrier to fall outside of the normal weight range.
Continue reading to learn about those causes and to find out what age full maturity is typically reached.
How Big Do Cairn Terriers Get?
Unlike many crossbred dogs, Cairn Terriers are a well-established breed with standard specifications for weight, height, and length. There should be very little variance in the size of well-bred dogs.
Note: The following measurements are according to the American Kennel Club (AKC) breed standards.
Male Cairn Terriers should reach an adult weight of 14 pounds, and their female counterparts should be 13 pounds.
Factors That Will Cause Weight to Be Above or Below the Norm
A perfectly healthy, properly exercised Cairn Terrier in the prime of his life should be between 13 – 14 pounds. However, several factors can cause a dog to either gain or lose weight and drift away from the breed norm.
Overfeeding – Owners with good intentions often offer too much food at each meal and do not compensate with additional exercise. The needless, extra calories quickly turn a slender, healthy dog into an obese one.
Underfeeding – Though not as common as overfeeding, underfeeding is equally bad for a dog’s health and can lead to an emaciated, malnourished animal. It’s best to feed a high-quality kibble and carefully follow the manufacturer’s feeding guidelines or to seek your veterinarian’s recommendation for feeding amounts based on your individual dog’s needs.
We talk all about putting weight back on an under-weight dog in this article.
Wrong Choice of Food – Dog’s nutritional needs change as they go through different life stages. For example, an adult dog no longer requires the additional fat, protein, and carbohydrates found in food formulated for growing puppies.
Be sure to feed an age and lifestyle appropriate kibble to prevent weight gain or loss.
Hyperactivity – Dogs who live life at full speed, zipping from here to there all day long, will naturally burn more calories each day and can lose weight if their diet is not adequately adjusted for their fast-paced lifestyle.
Laziness or Lack of Exercise – Some dogs are natural-born couch potatoes. Others are forced to remain cooped up in the house or their crate for the majority of each day. Both of these scenarios can cause weight gain but can be easily corrected with an exercise regimen.
Illness – Some conditions, such as hypothyroidism or Cushing’s disease, can cause significant weight gain, while others, such as internal parasites or cancer, can cause a noticeable drop in body weight. See your veterinarian if your dog experiences a sudden, unexplained change in weight.
Prescription Drugs – Medications, such as Prednisone, can affect a dog’s weight or cause marked differences in appetite. Discuss any medication side effects, like loss of appetite or weight gain, with your vet.
Cairn Terrier males will be about 10 inches tall at the withers (the top of the shoulder), and females will be slightly shorter – about 9 ½ inches tall.
Dogs purchased from breeders who do not breed according to breed standards may be within an inch or so of ideal height but still should reach a full height that is close to the breed criteria.
Both sexes will be approximately 15 inches long from the front of the chest to where the body meets the tail.
Fun Fact: This spunky little Terrier was actually named for a pile of rocks! The word cairn refers to a heap of stones used to mark boundaries or graves. Cairn Terriers were highly skilled at rousting out rodents and other vermin from these rock piles, hence their name.
What Age Are They Fully Grown?
Whereas larger breeds such as Great Danes, for example, can take up to 2 years or more to reach their full adult height and weight, small breeds, like the Cairn Terrier, typically finish growing much faster.
Most Cairn Terriers will be finished with skeletal growth somewhere between 8 – 12 months of age, though 10 – 12 months seems to be the average. When the bones stop growing, the Cairn Terrier has reached his full height and length.
Although skeletal growth is usually complete by the time a Cairn Terrier reaches his first birthday, he may continue to add muscle mass and fat to his frame up until the age of 18 months or so.
As his body bulks up, he’ll begin to look more and more like a typical adult Cairn Terrier and less and less like an adolescent.
When Are Cairn Terriers Considered Fully Mature?
Although many people consider a dog who is more than 1 year old to be an adult, this view is not entirely accurate. It’s similar to the way an 18-year-old person is deemed to be an adult but is still not quite finished growing or maturing mentally.
A Cairn Terrier becomes sexually mature and capable of reproduction well before the one year mark. Evidence of sexual development can be seen in puppies as young as 4 months old. Full sexual maturity is usually achieved by the eighth month.
The process of maturing mentally begins at birth and steadily continues up until the dog reaches 15 – 18 months or so. Daily experiences, consistent training, testing boundaries, and the socialization process all work to transform a puppy into a well-rounded, confident adult.
Generally, by the time a Cairn Terrier is 18 months old, it’s safe to assume that he is mature physically, sexually, and mentally and can be considered to be a full-fledged adult, though some individuals will reach this milestone much sooner.
Will the Coat Change as Cairn Terriers Mature?
Dogs are born with a softer version of their future adult coat. This is referred to as their puppy coat. A Cairn Terrier puppy’s coat may not rank as the softest, most luxurious coat ever, but it is softer than an adult Cairn Terrier’s.
This puppy coat will be gradually shed to make way for the stiffer, more wiry adult coat to come in. The loss of the puppy coat usually begins between the ages of 4 – 6 months and can either be a rapid process or may take a few months to complete.
Often, a light-colored puppy will become darker as the adult coat takes over, so don’t select your puppy based solely on the color or shade of his coat. Some Cairn Terriers will continue to darken for several years while others may not.
It’s anybody’s guess as to how much the coat might change through the years, but you’re sure to love him regardless of how light or dark he winds up being.
What is the life expectancy for a Cairn Terrier?
Properly cared for Cairn Terriers have an expected life span of 13 – 15 years, though some will outlive this range by quite a few years. Some will not be as lucky, but things like purchasing your puppy from a reputable breeder, feeding a high-quality diet, routine veterinary care, and adequate daily exercise will help him live a good, long life.